Data released on April 05, 2018
The Mikado pheasant (Syrmaticus mikado) is a nearly endangered species indigenous to high-altitude regions of Taiwan. It possesses a unique position in evolution because of its geographic isolation. Currently, the genetic background and adaptive behaviors of the Mikado pheasant remain unclear.
We present the draft genome of the Mikado pheasant, which consists of 1.04 Gb of DNA and 15 972 annotated protein-coding genes. The Mikado pheasant displays expansion and positive selection of genes related to features that contribute to its adaptive evolution, such as energy metabolism, oxygen transport, hemoglobin binding, radiation response, immune response, and DNA repair. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region contains 39 putative genes within 227 kb of DNA. Compared with the chicken MHC, we not only found that TAPBP and the TAP1-TAP2 block are in inverse orientation, but also identified some genes undergoing rapid evolution. The complete mitochondrial genome was further sequenced, assembled, and compared against 4 other long-tailed pheasants. The results from molecular clock analysis suggest that ancestors of the Mikado pheasant migrated from the north to Taiwan about 3.47 million years ago.
This study provides a valuable genomic resource for the Mikado pheasant, insights into its adaptation to high altitude, and the evolutionary history of the genus Syrmaticus, which could potentially be useful for future studies investigating molecular evolution, genomics, and immunogenetics.